What Is an Adult Child’s Definition of Happiness?

When I was a child, knocks on the door from neighborhood friends were often followed by the expected “Do you want to come out and play?” Now, as an adult, I do the same, except that the door stands between me and my inner child. Because of life-endured trauma and distrust, I wonder how frequently it answers.

What I do know is that it has posed a dual dilemma for me. First and foremost, I questioned what “play” can be considered, when I was shamed and suppressed for attempting to have it, at least in the presence of my father. Secondly, I wondered if this enjoyment-based activity can be a healthy, adult manifestation or is it really representative of my age-arrested inner child, acting in ways that it knew before that repression occurred, as it now tries to finish out what it was impeded from doing?

My father was often like the mean Miss Hannigan nanny overseeing the orphanage in the movie Annie, who would enter a room and ask, “Do I hear happiness?” Not that he ever verbally expressed this sentiment: he did not have to. Denied happiness himself and retriggered by any loud noise or even laughter, he wore an invisible sign that said “Happiness is not welcomed here.” Trying, nevertheless, to achieve it in his presence was like swimming against the current in a raging river and would only have resulted in his own explosive rage. He could not tolerate it.

How can you have fun while walking on egg shells and fearing the crack of a single one? Happiness was thus a risk: do you dare attempt it and then risk the harm that would serve as your punishment for doing so? Or do you avoid it just to remain safe? How many of those friends who queried if I wished to come out and play endured similar conflicts in their own home-of-origins? I doubt that any of them did.

Of course, choosing the “safer” option, you also chose negative emotions and the necessary denials that otherwise impacted your development.

Any real play was always in his absence. Indeed, the moment he closed the door and left for work, I breathed a sigh and let my own dam on positive energy burst, as if I were a starving person who gouged himself on an all-you-can-eat buffet until he later returned. I can be myself again, I used to think.

There are several prerequisites to fun, joy, humor, and happiness. You must first grieve your losses-the most major of which, ironically, was your entire childhood– before you can re-embrace your feelings and attain any degree of therapeutic recovery. The prerequisite for fun is spontaneity and the perquisite for it is safety.

“The pain of mourning and grief,” according to the Adult Children of Alcoholics textbook (World Service Organization, 2006, p. 83), “is balanced by being able, once again, to fully love and care for someone and to freely experience joy in life.”

Having been thrust into darkness for so long, you may wonder exactly what “joy” is. Perhaps not surprisingly, it is the opposite of darkness, or light.

“A sense of integration of the survival traits/common behaviors,” is the first of many definitions the Adult Children of Alcoholics textbook (p. 163) provides for joy, along with “coming out of the dark night of the soul with sureness of foot. Divided self reunited. Inner peace. Recognizing the true self within. Knowing you can trust yourself. Seeing light in self and others. Energy and warmth throughout the body.”

Discerning the commonality between you and others, or the light by which you are linked, enables you to realize what you intrinsically are without the bodily manifestation to which you are temporarily appendaged, connecting you at the core with both each other and the common Source who created you.

“When we let others know about our feelings, we connect with people on a spiritual and equal level instead of a dependent and manipulative one,” according to the textbook (p. 186).

Fun first requires that you break your ties with your hitherto unresolved past and the negative emotions associated with it so that, instead of being griped and controlled by reactions, you can flow from present-time spontaneity.

Locked within, of course, is the inner child who chose safety over satisfaction at a very early age and only after the need for it has been removed can you entice it to re-emerge.

“Mutual acceptance allows the child to see that the ability to trust is damaged, but not broken and can be restored by gently and slowly emerging from the protective prison of isolation,” according to the Adult Children of Alcoholics textbook (p. 362). “The adult becomes aware of the spirit of joy that inhabits every child and recognizes the need for openness and spontaneity in feeling completely alive.”

“Adult children who have experienced their inner child describe an inner being that is joyful and playful,” it also states (p. 303). “There is a feeling of lightness and great optimism when the inner child is active in one’s life. There is trust, spontaneity, and warmth.”

Although my father passed away 13 years ago, that wall between happiness and myself that he erected in me and questioned if fun was not a crime or altogether sin still stood, but recovery has progressively dismantled it

Play, today, depends upon risking, reaching, becoming, being, viewing people as friends, not threats, and flowing from my authentic self and not the false one I was forced to create to replace it-in other words, transforming myself from a human doing back into a human being who is not judged for my capabilities or productivity, but is instead esteemed for my intrinsic value and worth.

I aspire to someday achieve the late Dr. Wayne Dyer’s philosophy, which stated, “There is no way to happiness. Happiness is the way.”

The more I am restored, the higher I rise, and the higher I rise, the more I realize that that state is natural happiness.

Meaning of Socialisation


Socialization is the process by which children and adults learn from others. We begin learning from others during the early days of life; and most people continue their social learning all through life (unless some mental or physical disability slows or stops the learning process).

Put in other words, socialization is a process with the help of which a living organism is changed into a social being. It is a process through which the younger generation learns the adult role which it has to play subsequently. It is a continuous process in the life of an individual and it continues from generation to generation.


Every society is faced with the necessity of making a responsible member out of each child born into it. The child must learn the expectations of the society so that his behavior can be relied upon. He must acquire the group norms. The society must socialize each member so that his behavior will be meaningful in terms of the group norms. In the process of socialization the individual learns the reciprocal responses of the society.

Features of Socialization:

1. Inculcates basic discipline:

Socialization inculcates basic discipline. A person learns to control his impulses. He may show a disciplined behaviour to gain social approval.

2. Helps to control human behaviour:

It helps to control human behaviour. An individual from birth to death undergoes training and his, behaviour is controlled by numerous ways. In order to maintain the social order, there are definite procedures or mechanism in society. These procedures become part of the man’s/life and man gets adjusted to the society. Through socialization, society intends to control the behaviour of its-members unconsciously.

3. Socialization is rapid if there is more humanity among the- agencies of socialization:

Socialization takes place rapidly if the agencies’ of socialization are more unanimous in their ideas and skills. When there is conflict between the ideas, examples and skills transmitted in home and those transmitted by school or peer, socialization of the individual tends to be slower and ineffective.

4. Socialization takes place formally and informally:

Formal socialization takes through direct instruction and education in schools and colleges. Family is, however, the primary and the most influential source of education. Children learn their language, customs, norms and values in the family.

5. Socialization is continuous process:

Socialization is a life-long process. It does not cease when a child becomes an adult. As socialization does not cease when a child becomes an adult, internalization of culture continues from generation to generation. Society perpetuates itself through the internalization of culture. Its members transmit culture to the next generation and society continues to exist.

Types of Socialization:

Although socialization occurs during childhood and adolescence, it also continues in middle and adult age. Orville F. Brim (Jr.) described socialization as a life-long process. He maintains that socialization of adults differ from childhood socialization. In this context it can be said that there are various types of socialization.

1. Primary Socialization:

Primary socialization refers to socialization of the infant in the primary or earliest years of his life. It is a process by which the infant learns language and cognitive skills, internalizes norms and values. The infant learns the ways of a given grouping and is molded into an effective social participant of that group.

The norms of society become part of the personality of the individual. The child does not have a sense of wrong and right. By direct and indirect observation and experience, he gradually learns the norms relating to wrong and right things. The primary socialization takes place in the family.

2. Secondary Socialization:

The process can be seen at work outside the immediate family, in the ‘peer group’. The growing child learns very important lessons in social conduct from his peers. He also learns lessons in the school. Hence, socialization continues beyond and outside the family environment. Secondary socialization generally refers to the social training received by the child in institutional or formal settings and continues throughout the rest of his life.

3. Adult Socialization:

In the adult socialization, actors enter roles (for example, becoming an employee, a husband or wife) for which primary and secondary socialization may not have prepared them fully. Adult socialization teaches people to take on new duties. The aim of adult socialization is to bring change in the views of the individual. Adult socialization is more likely to change overt behaviour, whereas child socialization moulds basic values.

4. Anticipatory Socialization:

Anticipatory socialization refers to a process by which men learn the culture of a group with the anticipation of joining that group. As a person learns the proper beliefs, values and norms of a status or group to which he aspires, he is learning how to act in his new role.

5. Re-socialization:

Re-Socialization refers to the process of discarding former behaviour patterns and accepting new ones as part of a transition in one’s life. Such re-socialization takes place mostly when a social role is radically changed. It involves abandonment of one way of life for another which is not only different from the former but incompatible with it. For example, when a criminal is rehabilitated, he has to change his role radically.

Importance of Socialization:

Socialization is an important part of the process of personality formation in every individual. It is true that genetics is the reason behind the structure of human personality, but socialization is the one that causes this personality to be molded to specific directions through the process of accepting or rejecting beliefs, attitudes and societal norms. Because of the dynamics in socialization, we tend to have different personalities although we are living in the same society. In the socialization process the individual learns the culture as well as skills, ranging from language to manual dexterity which will enable him to become a participating member of human society.

Socialization inculcates basic disciplines, ranging from toilet habits to method of science. In his early years, individual is also socialized with regard to sexual behaviour. Society is also concerned with imparting the basic goals, aspirations and values to which the child is expected to direct his behaviour for the rest of his life. He learns-the levels to which he is expected to aspire.

In this way man becomes a person through the social influences which he shares with others and through his own ability to respond and weave his responses into a unified body of habits, attitudes and traits.

Intellectual Openness – A Key Cognitive Strategy For College Readiness

In a report prepared for the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation in 2007, David T. Conley proposed four components of college readiness. In the first – Key Cognitive Strategies – Conley identifies six strategies: Intellectual Openness, Inquisitiveness, Analysis, Reasoning-Argumentation-Proof, Interpretation, Precision and Accuracy, and Problem Solving. In this article, I will examine the first of these strategies – Intellectual Openness – and articulate my perspective as both a college professor and a high school administrator in terms and ideas students, parents, and teachers can understand and implement.

Key Cognitive Strategies: Intellectual Openness. Conley states:

“The student possesses curiosity and a thirst for deeper understanding, questions the views of others when those views are not logically supported, accepts constructive criticism, and changes personal views if warranted by the evidence. Such open-mindedness helps students understand the ways in which knowledge is constructed, broadens personal perspectives and helps students deal with the novelty and ambiguity often encountered in the study of new subjects and new materials.”

I find it intriguing that Conley would place Key Cognitive Strategies the first component on his list and even more intriguing that he put Intellectual Openness at the top of this component. No doubt characteristics such as “curiosity,” “thirst for deeper understanding,” and “open-mindedness” would serve a college student well. However, are such characteristics developed or even addressed in conventional secondary education? I don’t think so… which is why I suspect we see Intellectual Openness up front.

Conventional secondary education – I use the term conventional to describe public and private school programs that use the conventional class period, the conventional exposure paradigm of X-number of hours or minutes dedicated to a particular slice of the subject matter, and the conventional measurement that education is defined by the amount of time the student sits in a seat in a class and the number of days the student attends. Conventional secondary education generally does not have the time or even the patience to allow “curiosity,” “thirst for deeper understanding,” or “open-mindedness” except in very rare situations.

Is it that the students do not possess “curiosity,” “thirst for deeper understanding,” or “open-mindedness?” The simple answer is “NO.” Because conventional school is by and large… boring…, these characteristics go into “Neutral” during the school day. The brain ruminates in the background – thinking about Face Book, World of Warcraft, and the current Twilight saga.

Curiosity – these young people are naturally curious. They manage to surf the net, navigate Face Book, and destroy worlds and civilizations with a series of mouse clicks… and learned to do so without a class, a manual, or a teacher talking at them for 45 minutes.

Thirst for deeper understanding – these young people are constantly thirsting, starving, and ravenously pursuing deeper understanding… just not in school. Contemporary literature like the Harry Potter series and the Twilight series did not become best sellers because they had pretty pictures. Young people dive, dig, and plow into these books without adult inducement, and may even have to fight to continue to read them.

Open-mindedness – these young people pick up new, and sometimes disturbing, ideas all the time. I call these “underground” ideas because these ideas are not in the curriculum and often come from the media and the internet. These ideas remain “underground” because they are suppressed in the conventional environment. Indeed, open-mindedness is often punished. Take, for example, the issue of religion and public schools. Our students are not allowed to be open-minded about religion in public school. I am not advocating that we hold sermons in first period, but how can there be “open-mindedness” when the entire concept of existence of religion in society and influence of religion as historical, cultural, and societal phenomenon is categorically removed from the public educational experience. Where’s the open-mindedness? Not very open.

The conventional school system produces a product that 60% of those who actually graduated from high school and were actually admitted and enrolled at four-year institutions, didn’t finish in four years. The figures get worse for two-year institutions. If 60% of automobiles, refrigerators, and washing machines didn’t last four years, what would we think?

The solution does not lie with conventional institutions, and even if it did, your 9th grader will be in his or her 30’s before any significant movement will occur (sound cynical?). Furthermore, most conventional schools are not in the college preparation business; they are in the high school business.

The solution lies with parents and what they want for their children. They have to think outside the conventional school “box” and seek independent solutions for their children. Parents, not the schools, are ultimately responsible for their children and the opportunities afforded them.


Conley, D. T. (2007). Redefining College Readiness. Eugene, OR: Educational Policy Improvement Center.

The Importance of Fine Arts in the Classroom

Fine Arts is defined in the Encarta Dictionary as being, “any art form, for example, painting, sculpture, architecture, drawing, or engraving, that is considered to have purely aesthetic value” (Encarta, 2004). Though this definition is used in relationship with the arts in the regular world, in regards to teaching, fine arts is defined as a subject beneficial, not essential, to the learning process and is often phased out because of lack of time, little learning potential, and no money. Fine arts is simply seen as painting and drawing, not a subject studied by an academic scholar. Writer Victoria Jacobs explains, “Arts in elementary schools have often been separated from the core curriculum and instead, offered as enrichment activities that are considered beneficial but not essential” (Jacobs, 1999, p. 2).

What is missing in classrooms is the lack of teacher knowledge of the benefits of maintaining an art- based curriculum. Teachers “have very little understanding of the arts as disciplines of study. They think of the arts instruction as teacher-oriented projects used to entertain or teach other disciplines” (Berghoff, 2003, p. 12). Fine arts expand the boundaries of learning for the students and encourage creative thinking and a deeper understanding of the core subjects, which are language arts, math, science, and social studies. Teachers need to incorporate all genres of fine arts, which include, theater, visual art, dance, and music, into their lesson plans because the arts gives the students motivational tools to unlock a deeper understanding of their education. Teaching the arts is the most powerful tool that teachers can present in their classrooms because this enables the students to achieve their highest level of learning.

From 1977 to 1988 there were only three notable reports demonstrating the benefits of art education. These three reports are Coming to Our Senses, by the Arts, Education and Americans Panal (1977), Can we Rescue the Arts for American Children, sponsored by the American Council for the Arts (1988), and the most respected study, Toward Civilization, by the National Endowment for the Arts (1988). These three studies conjured that art education was very important in achieving a higher education for our students. While these studies proved the arts to be beneficial to the learning process, it was not until 2002 when the research analysis of Critical Links: Learning in the Arts and Student Academic and Social Development “provided evidence for enhancing learning and achievement as well as positive social outcomes when the arts were integral to students’ learning experiences” was taken seriously by lawmakers (Burns, 2003, p. 5). One study, in this analysis, was focused on the teaching of keyboard training to a classroom in order to see if student’s scores on spatial reasoning could be improved. It was then compared to those students who received computer training which involved no fine art components. This concluded that learning through the arts did improve the scores on other core curriculum subjects such as math and science where spatial reasoning is most used (Swan-Hudkins, 2003).

This study shows how one little change in the way students are taught through the arts can have a powerful impact on their learning achievements and understandings. Another study showed at-risk students who, for one year, participated in an art- based curriculum raised their standardized language arts test by an average of eight percentile points, 16 percentile points if enrolled for two years. Students not engaging in this form of activity did not show a change of percentile (Swan-Hudkins, 2003). Though this may not seem like a big increase, at- risk students were able to use this style of learning to better understand their learning style thus bettering their learning patterns. The most interesting case study in this analysis involved the schools of Sampson, North Carolina, where for two years in a row their standardized test scores rose only in the schools that implemented the arts education in their school district (Swan-Hudkins, 2003). Teaching the arts needs to be incorporated in every teachers daily lesson plans because, based on these studies, students who are taught through the arts raise their test and learning levels.

Due to the high volume of attention President Bush’s, No Child Left Behind Act, has required in schools, teaching the arts is left behind. Another reason for the lack of arts in the classroom author Victoria Jacobs explains, “Given the shrinking budgets of school districts around the country, art specialists and art programs have disappeared from many elementary schools” (Jacobs, 1999, p. 4). Fine arts are being seen as non-educational or an extra-curricular activity. Therefore, when there is a lack of money in school districts, this subject is easily being cut. Teachers need to find a way to incorporate the arts into the classroom rather than rely on outside activities and Jacobs suggests teaching “through the arts… with a means of using the arts successfully and in a way that it is not just “one more thing” they must include in the curriculum” (Jacobs, 1999, p. 4).

The arts can open the minds of students in ways mere reading and writing will never be able to accomplish. Yet, the point of teaching this subject is not to teach about the arts, but to teach through the arts. Jacobs explains,

Teaching though the arts requires students to engage in the act of creative art. For example they might draw a picture, write a poem, act in a drama, or compose music to further their understanding of concepts in content areas other than the arts. Teaching through the arts helps students experience concepts rather than simply discussing or reading them. This approach is consistent with educational theories that highlight the importance of reaching multiple learning styles or intelligences. (Jacobs, 1999, p. 2)

Teaching through the arts can be done in many different ways depending on the teacher’s interests, but truly is the only way to reinforce the students learning experience. In a time where budget cuts and new learning laws are being established, teachers need to be more informed and educated on the negative impacts of the loss of the fine arts programs.

Three, veteran teachers at a public elementary school did a case study which involved teaching through the arts. They believed “our students had to experience cycles of inquiry wherein they learned about the arts and through the arts, and that they needed to see teachers of different disciplines collaborate” (Berghoff, 2003, p. 2).

The study was based on teaching a history lesson unit on Freedom and Slavery through the arts. Ms. Bixler-Borgmann had her students listen to the song “Swing Low, Sweet Chariot” in many different styles of music, such as an African-American Quartet, Reggae, and Show Tunes. She then incorporated this lesson into the importance singing played to the slaves at that time. Ms. Berghoff had her students read samples of African-American folk literature and write down sentences that made an impact on them while they were reading. She then incorporated those sentences into group poems. Ms. Parr explored two art pieces entitled, “Swing Low, Sweet Chariot” and had the students talk about artwork by asking three questions: “What is going on in this picture? What do you see that makes you say that? What else can you find?” (Berghoff, 2003). She also had the students focus on the images, concepts, and meanings which the artists wanted to depict. Ms. Parr felt this would teach the students how to uncover the hidden meanings in other core curriculum subjects (Berghoff, 2003). After the study, the students were asked what and how they had learned from this style of teaching.

Many students wrote in their journals that working in multiple sign systems in parallel ways heightened their emotional involvement. They found themselves thinking about what they were learning in class when they were at home or at work. They noted that even though they had studied slavery at other times, they had never really imagined how it felt to be a slave or thought about the slaves’ perspectives and struggles. (Berghoff, 2003)

The students had learned more from this lesson because they were able to use all styles of learning and were taught from an angle which is rarely used, through the arts. “Studies indicate that a successful arts integrated program will use these components to guide student learning and assess growth and development (Swan-Hudkins, 2003). The students were able to learn based on abstract thinking and find the deeper meaning of the lessons prepared by the teachers.

“The study of the arts has the potential for providing other benefits traditionally associated with arts….arts has been linked to students’ increased critical and creative thinking skills, self-esteem, willingness to take risks, and ability to work with others” (Jacobs, 1999, p. 4). With these benefits, teachers can not afford to limit their teaching of the arts in the classroom. Teaching through the arts are the key elements of learning and the traits teachers strive to establish and reinforce in their students. By working through the arts, instead of about the arts, the students’ educational experience will be achieved in a different way than just teaching the standard style of learning. Former Governor of California, Gray Davis, noted, “Art education helps students develop creativity, self-expression, analytical skills, discipline, cross-cultural understandings, and a heightened appreciation for the arts” and that “students who develop artistic expression and creative problem solving skills are more like to succeed in school and will be better prepared for the jobs and careers of the future” (California Art Study, 2003, p. 1).

Exposing students to abstract learning will teach the students about logic and reasoning and help them grasp what might not be represented on the surface. Recent Reports from the National Art Education Association (NAEA) confirmed with Governor Davis when they reported “Students in art study score higher on both their Verbal and Math SAT tests than those who are not enrolled in arts courses (California Art Study, 2003, p. 5). Attached is a copy of the test scores of students in the arts and students with no arts coursework.

What is a better way to enhance a lesson plan than to add another dimension of learning than by incorporating different levels of teaching? A company that has the basis of focusing on different learning styles is Links for Learning, [http://www.links-for-learning.com]. This company understands the importance of incorporating arts into the classroom. Former Secretary of Education, William Bennet wrote, “The arts are essential elements of education just like reading, writing, and arithmetic…Music, dance, painting, and theater are keys to unlock profound human understanding and accomplishment” (Swann-Hudkins, 2002).

An example of the benefits of teaching the arts would be the study of a teacher who taught the water cycle lesson through movement and music. The students were introduced to the water cycle in the traditional style of teaching, reading and lecturing. Yet, in order for the students to fully understand the “experience” of being a snowflake, the students listened to Tchaikovsky’s Nutcracker Suite (The Waltz of the Snowflakes) and closed their eyes visualizing the adventure snowflakes encounter on there way to the ground. A great side effect of dance is that “exposure to dances foreign to them (the students) helps them to understand and appreciate differences in societies. Their minds become open to new ideas and a different perspective. This understanding helps to eliminate possible prejudice, enriching the student and our society” (Swan-Hudkins, 2003, p.17). While the music was playing the teacher asked them questions, such as, “How are they going to land” and “What do you see as you are falling”. The second time listening to the music the students were asked to act out the water cycle through movement and dance. Teachers should know “a class that includes dance can make students feel empowered and actively involved in their education. In creating their own dance, students develop conceptional thinking, which is not always expressed verbally” (Swan-Hudkins, 2003, p. 17).

With these activities, the students were able to become part of the water cycle instead of just using their listening skills and trying to mentally figure out this lesson. The teacher also had the students write a poem using words they felt while they, the snowflakes, were falling to the ground (Jacobs, 1999, p.2). “The motivational powers of the arts are significant as this teacher explained, “Hooking a kid is half, if not more than half, the battle of learning. If you can hook them, then you can get them to learn” (Jacobs, 1999, p. 6). Teachers need to gain access to all styles of learning which can only spark their motivational powers.

Harvard Project Researchers Winner and Hetland remarks, “The best hope for the arts in our school is to justify them by what they can do that other subjects can’t do as well” (Swan-Hudkins, 2003, p. 18). Teachers need to gain a better education of teaching their students through the arts. Without the arts, teachers are limiting their students’ ability to use their entire thinking process, providing less opportunity for complete comprehension. Teaching through the arts is the most powerful tool that teachers can give in their classrooms because it enables the students to achieve their highest level of learning.

With the lack of attention art is getting outside of the classroom, teachers cannot afford not to incorporate dance, theater, visual arts, or music in their lesson plans. Fine arts is the core curriculums constant and most important companion. No child should be left behind, and teaching through the arts will reinforce this idea.


Berghoff, B., Bixler-Borgmann, C., and Parr, C. (2003). Cycles of Inquiry with the Arts. Urbana, 17, 1-17.

Burns, M. (2003). Connecting Arts Education Policy and Research to Classroom Teaching. Presented at The Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association. Chicago, IL.

California Art Study. (2003). Retrieved on April 18 from []

Encarta Online Dictionary. (2004). Retrieved on April 17 from http://encarta.msn.com/dictionary_/fine%20arts.html

Jacobs, V. and Goldberg, M. (1999). Teaching Core Curriculum Content through the Arts. Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association. Ontario, Canada.

Swan-Hudkins, B. (2002). The Effect of an Elementary Fine Arts Program on Students’. M.A.Thesis. Salem International University. Salem, West Virginia.

The Main Setbacks of Content and Language Integrated Learning

1. Introduction

Content and language integrated learning, more commonly known as CLIL, is a term coined in 1994 and originally defined as a set of educational methods which aim at teaching a subject in a foreign language, thus bearing a dual focus: learning the contents of a subject and a foreign language, simultaneously. Since then, many authors have strived to further define what CLIL means, as well as to gain further insight into what it implies. Coyle et al (2010) define it as “an educational approach in which various language-supportive methodologies are used which lead to a dual-focused form of instruction, where attention is given both to the language and the content“. If we look at both definitions, the former given by Kohonen (1994) through UniCOM (a project integrating the University of Jyväskylä (Finland) and the European Platform for Dutch Education), we see that most elements are repeated, namely educational methods/approach, dual focus, language and content, etc. Hence, we can see that despite time, almost a good twenty years now, the essence of CLIL still remains the same.

But why has CLIL become an important approach in terms of teaching? Although this question may be answered at length at any time by many respected authors, it may also be summarised in only a few lines. Its importance is widely understood to lie in the idea that any given language should be the means towards achieving something else. In our context, an educational one, language learning is regarded as a tool towards learning other contents, as well as an educational goal in itself. In this sense, CLIL may be regarded as the perfect educational approach. Firstly, we learn a subject’s content. Secondly, we acquire a foreign language. Thirdly, we are to use the foreign language, not just to learn about it, which is as optimal as it gets. Sadly, the sociocultural and educational contexts in which CLIL may be implemented are in most cases far from perfect, making it difficult or even impossible to be carried out. In this sense, we should ask ourselves whether CLIL is actually as good as it sounds, whether it is really determining the course to be followed, or if it is simply another utopic approach that will eventually be cast into oblivion. This article aims to clarify this particular issue: is CLIL the approach for the future? In order to be able to answer this controversial query, I will outline some of the drawbacks in relation to the implementation of CLIL, dividing them into those which I consider have a greater importance in terms of difficulty, and those which may be overcome more easily.

2. Major CLIL setbacks

CLIL, just as any other teaching approach, has its supporters and detractors, and it is our goal now to focus on the arguments expressed by the latter, in order to determine whether CLIL is worth all the fuss or not. Let us now see some of the greatest difficulties that implementing a CLIL approach brings about.

Firstly, off the top of any teacher’s head, arise what are surely regarded as the major obstacles when even considering implementing CLIL in any given educational context: time constraints and attainment of goals. These two issues, though they may be treated separately, should be dealt with together, as they always come hand-in-hand. On the one hand, we have to take into account that learning a language, by whatever means, is no easy feat. It takes years to master a mother tongue, how easy can it be to excel in a foreign language? Not at all. In this sense, we ought to consider the time that pupils under a CLIL approach are exposed to the foreign language. Ideally, if every subject were taught in that foreign language, every student would benefit from a good 25-30 hours a week of language exposure, at least. This amount of time is surely enough to become fluent in a foreign language in several years. However, thinking so is unrealistic. Firstly, it is rather unlikely that such amount of exposure really took place, due to other related issues such as culture-related problems, shortage of teacher training or lack of linguistic fluency or mastery. Also, some students would need a good deal of instruction in their mother tongue to take place so as to be provided with a comprehensible starting point. Besides, during these 25-30 hours, how long do students spend speaking to each other for non-academic purposes? And more specifically, which language would they use to do so, or even for academic reasons, their own comfortable mother tongue or a second language with which they might not feel confident enough? This would deduct a considerable amount of time from the initially given figure.

On the other hand, closely related to time constraints, there come the different educational demands expected from teachers and higher spheres. In the first place, teachers ought to fulfil a set of goals in terms of what students must learn and the skills they must acquire or develop. That is, not only in a foreign language, but in every subject of the educational curriculum. In this sense, it is already difficult to meet these demands, so simply imagine how hard it would be for both teachers and students to add the element of working entirely in a language which is not their own and still being compelled to fulfil the same educational goals. This would only be possible in contexts in which the foreign language is well rooted into society, as it happens in countries such as the Netherlands, where the English language is widely spread amongst its population as well as its culture. However, in other countries, take Spain for instance, there is hardly any exposure to a second language outside an educational context. In such case, how can students cope with the dual-focus of a CLIL approach and still accomplish the same objectives as non-CLIL students? It is virtually impossible, and pupils are at risk of what it is called backsliding, meaning that CLIL may even have counter-productive effect on students’ performance, not only in their subjects but also in their first language. Per contra, there may be a possible solution to this, though it may not be fair for some students. However, we will see to that at the end of this article. Let us now continue focusing on some other related CLIL issues.

Another important setback of CLIL is the fluency of the teachers in the foreign language. If a teacher is to teach a subject by means of a foreign language, he or she undoubtedly needs to be extremely fluent in this particular language, as well as versed in the subject in hand. Anyone can learn something by heart in another language, and just “spit” it. However, a teacher has to explain concepts, has to provide with examples, has to face challenging questions from students, has to be able to simplify things, has to have the necessary skills to improvise, etc. Therefore, if a teacher is not extremely fluent in the foreign language, he or she is not qualified to teach content and language in an integrated manner. It is just absurd to even consider so. This is for example the problem that some countries are facing nowadays. In the case of Spain, there is a huge demand for bilingual schools, in which every subject is taught in English by means of CLIL. In doing so, teachers, both veterans and newly-qualified ones, are expected to be fluent in the language. Be that as it may, it is quixotic to think that all of a sudden teachers are going to become fluent in a foreign language. It must be said that it is not a matter of teachers not willing to learn a language, but rather that based on historical educational tradition, even some language teachers are not fluent enough in the language they teach, let alone subject teachers, who have not received proper language instruction in years or even in their lives. It is for this reason that, although many Spanish schools, both state and private ones, claim to be educating pupils in a bilingual environment, it is a lie or rather a dream from which society will eventually have to awaken. For a school to be able to provide students with a bilingual education, it must count with a fully bilingual staff, and that, in current Spanish state schools can simply not happen nowadays. Some private schools offer effective immersion programmes where teachers are either native or completely bilingual. However, attending these schools can only be afforded by wealthy families, which leaves middle and lower classes at a disadvantage from a linguistic and academic point of view.

Related to teachers as well, we encounter the problem with current foreign language teachers. In this regard, if CLIL were to be the future of all schools’ approach, what would happen to language teachers? Maybe, in a primary school context language teachers would be able to adapt, since in many countries they are also trained in teaching other subjects apart from the foreign language. However, language teachers in higher educational levels would be in deep water. They would either end up out of a job or would have to transform their role drastically. In some cases, they could aid subject teachers in adapting and creating teaching materials or maybe provide linguistically weaker students with language support and assistance. Either way, the role of the language teacher would become practically extinct or obsolete.

3. Minor CLIL setbacks

We will now be looking at some downsides of any CLIL approach that even though they are not as hard to overcome as the ones previously analysed, they still need a fair share of thought and consideration.

Closely related to the issue of teachers’ linguistic level and so-called bilingual schools, we have some political issues. With reference to this, one must consider that any political party that promises to improve and foster how foreign languages are taught, will no doubt attract the attention of those parents that are worried about their children’s education and future. And this promise may be done by means of implementing CLIL in schools. Nevertheless, politicians only convey to voters the bright side of any political decision. Therefore, some gullible parents may be lured into believing that their children will be bilingual if they vote for one particular party or another, while in fact this “change” will only take place on paper, and not as a real enhancement or improvement of students’ linguistic level.

In addition to political lies, we encounter the Trojan Horse argument. The problem in this case is that, in multilingual countries, CLIL may be used for politico-linguistic reasons (Ball, 2012). In some countries, such as Spain, there are regions in which there are various official languages. Such is the case of Catalonia or the Basque Country, where there are two official languages and the use of each is closely linked to political, cultural and social issues. In these cases and in educational contexts, there exist tensions as regards the language in which pupils are taught. Therefore, implementing CLIL in Catalonian or Basque, respectively, has consequences that transcend educational boundaries and both sociocultural and political elements come into play. As a result of this, CLIL in this type of regions must be very carefully planned and considered, in order not to give rise to further social and political tensions.

Veering towards non-political issues, another setback that we encounter when thinking about CLIL is the issue of materials. This affects not only teachers, but also publishers. On the one hand, teachers under CLIL circumstances would have to invest a considerably larger amount of time in creating and adapting materials so as to make them suitable for pupils. This is not only rather difficult to do, but also quite unfair. Teachers already have enough work and responsibilities for a couple of lifetimes, so undertaking such a time-consuming task is just not fair on them. On the other hand, since CLIL is difficult to export across frontiers, publishers seem reluctant to publish any general textbooks (Ball, 2012). In consequence, all the work falls upon teachers, and for them to painstakingly adapt everything is almost impossible. Furthermore, how would publishing most materials in a foreign language affect the industry of publishers of subjects such as history, maths or science? How would they react to having to translate and adapt everything? I do not believe that they would be willing to do so overnight.

Finally, an important change has to take place when testing and assessing students being taught from a CLIL approach. Since CLIL has a dual focus, content and language, teachers have to create a different means of “measuring” students’ performance that took into consideration both content and language performance at the same time. As a result of this, the task of assessing students becomes remarkably harder than it is nowadays.

4. Conclusion

Throughout the course of this article I have focused mainly on the downsides of Content and Language Integrated Learning, and not on its upsides. However, and although I believe the drawbacks are numerous and somewhat tough to overcome, CLIL probably has greater advantages than disadvantages. By saying so, I mean that whilst CLIL is far from being perfect, it is definitely closer to perfection than what came before it. In my view, CLIL is an approach towards which we should steer our educational system. The fact that something is utopic does not mean that it should be disregarded. All to the contrary, it means that it is what we should be seeking.

Humans use language to communicate. Thus, communicating is the only reason for language to exist. In education, communication is the basis for conveying and transmitting knowledge. Therefore, if we can use a foreign language as the main tool to share and acquire knowledge, we are learning a second language in the most meaningful way possible, and that is, or rather would be, the perfect way to acquire any foreign language, by using it. And, fortunately, CLIL meets this requirement. Accordingly, I believe that CLIL is the approach for the future. However, I believe that in my country, Spain, it is not being implemented in an appropriate way. I feel that the cart is being put before the horse. Teachers leave college with barely any knowledge of CLIL, and they are expected in so-called bilingual schools to teach subjects in a foreign language. The government sells to parents the idea of raising bilingual children, while they pressure teachers to attain a B2 level of English that is hardly enough to be teaching English at a primary level, let alone to teach all the different subject contents, such as Maths, History, Science, Philosophy, etc.

From my point of view, CLIL is an ideal approach. But it calls for a change that cannot happen overnight. It cannot even happen in the course of ten years. I am in no position to say how long it may take, but I know that if it is to be implemented flawlessly it must be done from the bottom, starting in kindergarten and moving up through primary, secondary and college levels. It is either that or stumbling once and again over the same mistakes that we are currently making. Pupils must start with CLIL from the very beginning of their educational stages. And, although this seems ideal and somewhat viable, it would be highly unfair to previous generations of students who would miss out on a great opportunity of being by far more fluent in a foreign language. Nonetheless, I still believe it is the only way of making things right. With regard to teachers, these should be fully qualified and competent in the use of a foreign language, and should have received specific CLIL training throughout their studying days. Besides, veteran teachers should not be forced to learn another language. It is unfair that they are being made to do so nowadays, after so many years studying and teaching in their own mother tongue, as, in most cases, it is impossible for them to acquire a level that would enable them to competently carry out their service in a different language from their own.

After having expressed my views on the subject, I believe that the only thing left to say is that CLIL should either be carried out properly, or not carried out at all.

5. Bibliography

– Ball, P. & Master in Applied Linguistics (University of Essex) (Eds.) (2012). Content and Language Integrated Learning. FUNIBER

– Coyle, D., Hood, P., and Marsh, D. (2010). CLIL. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

– Kohonen, V. (1994). Teaching Content through a Foreign Language is a Matter of School Development. UniCom. Jyväskylä University of Jyväskylä, Finland.

Methods of Teaching In Schools Adopted By Teachers

Teaching methods are various ways of imparting knowledge to students or pupils in schools. Teaching is one of the best profession in the world because majority of professions and careers derived their origin from Education. Therefore we should adopt in many ways of teaching so that the students can easily assimilate the topics as soon as possible. The most problems encountered by teachers today that affects students negatively is methods of teaching adopted by teachers.

The teachers know the subject and topics very well but find it difficult to teach and transmit this knowledge and ideas to students which make it difficult for the students to understand mostly science oriented subjects and mathematical subjects.

Bad methods of teaching discourage students from knowing the subject as well lead to their failures in the examinations.

Now let us look at the various methods of teaching

1 DESCRIPTIVE METHODS-The teachers starts by describing the topics and subject to the students. E. g the table has four legs and a flat tops. It is used for writing, reading and eating and for serving dinners. The teacher describe in details all he knows about table, house, or any subject matters.

2 EXPLANATORY METHODS-In this methods the teacher start teaching by explaining the topics to students in forms of definition. Examples is money-He or she defines money as anything that is generally acceptable as means of payment and settlement of debts. . it is alegal tender.

The teacher explain into details all he knows about money for students to understand.

3 QUESTIONS AND ANSWER METHODS-The teachers start teaching by asking the students questions relating to the topics and based on the subjects and topics at hands while the students replies by finding solutions to the questions asked. E. g What is Biology?While the students gives back answer by defining biology as the subjects that studie s living things which includes plants and animals.

The teacher then went further to deliver his teaching by explaining in details the meaning of biology and asked them more questions relating to the subject matters at the end of the teaching or lecture.

4 EXPERIMENTAL METHODS-The teacher uses experiment to teach and impart knowledge to the stuidents. it is usually done in the laboratory or classroom with lots of experimental tools and equipments. It creates lasting memory since students are exposed to practicals that enhanced their learning rate. They enen practice it them selves to ascertain levels of understanding while the teachers corrects wher there is mistakes.

5 PLAYWAY METHODS-This is a methods where by the teacher palys with students in form of singing and rhymes recitation while the students or pupils sing along and dance with the teacher.

In doing so the teacher impart knowledge and ideas into the pupils through singing and demonstrating with pupils. E. g Row Row your boat gently down the stream, merrly merrily life is but a dream. While the pupils sing along and play with the teacher. it is applicable to pupils in lower classes such as kindergarten and pre -nursery classes.

6 LECTURE METHODS-This is a methods whereby the teacher deliver his topics or subjects in form of lectures. He stood in front of the students and teach as well dictates to the students as well writes on the chalkboard. He then give them assignment at the end of the lecture.

He explain in details the content of the subject matter.

He then give them assignment at the end of the lecture.

7 FIELD TRIP METHODS-This methods involves the teacher and students embark on a field trip to see things for themselves as well the teacher assigned to this trip shows and explain to the students what they see and came across.

E. g A visit to the zoo, visit to botanical garden, hospitalls, airports, seeports, industries anad banks.

This methods make impression and learning last longer in students memory because of what they see, feel and touch with their five sensory organs of the body such as eyes, nose, tongue, skinn ears etc. This methods is one of the best methods used in scientific research and environmental studies.

8 LISTENING METHODS-The teacher teaches while the students listens to the teacher as he explaiins the topics to the students

All the important points will be explained to the students while students ask questions regarding the areas they do not understand.

The teacher gives the students assignment and home work after the lesson

9 DISCUSSION METHODS-This is a methods whereby the teacher discusses the topics with the students in details. it is a win-win situation, the students asked questions in areas where they do not understand. The teacher start teaching by writing the topics on the chalkboard and discuss it with the students as he progressed with the topics

The teacher gives the students time to ask questions regarding the subject matter.

Examples are Let us discuss the topic-Economics-He then discuss Economics as subject that studies human behaviour in relation to resources that has alternate uses. He then say something about carcicity, choice, opportunity cost, scale of preferences e. t. c to butress his assertion.

Above all teachers should endeavor to adopt the best methods student can easily understand to drive home their points

Teachers should avoid complicated methods that will put the students off during lessons.

Topic sentences should be well highlighted and explained as well be defined clearly for easy assimilation.

Therefore be a good teacher that leaves a good legacy behind for the younger generations. because the youth of today are the great leaders of tomorrow.


Analysis of Betty Friedan’s The Problem That Has No Name

In an excerpt from her book, “The Feminine Mystique”, Betty Friedan defines women’s unhappiness during the Fifties as ”the problem that has no name.” She identifies “the problem that has no name” as upper-middle classed suburban women experiencing dissatisfaction with their lives and an inarticulated longing for something else beside their housewifely duties. She pins the blame on a media perpetuated idealized image of femininity, a social construction that tells women that their role in life is catch a man, keep a man, have children and put the needs of one’s husband and children first.

According to Friedan, women have been encouraged to confine themselves to a very narrow definition of “true” womanhood, forsaking education and career aspirations in the process by experts who wrote books, columns and books that told women during that era that their greatest role on the planet was to be wives and mothers. The role of a “real” woman was to have no interest in politics, higher education and careers and women were taught by these experts to pity women who had the nerve to want a life beyond the cult of true womanhood.

If women expressed dissatisfaction with their charmed lives, the experts blamed their feelings on the higher education they received before becoming a housewife. During the fifties, little girls as young as ten years were being marketed by underwear advertisers selling brassieres with false bottoms to aide them in catching boyfriends and American girls began getting married in high school. America’s birthrate during this time skyrocketed and college educated women made careers out of having children. The image of the beautiful, bountiful Suburban housewife was accepted as the norm and women drove themselves crazy, sometimes literally to achieve this goal.

Friedan ultimately concluded that “the problem that has no name” is not a loss of femininity, too much education, or the demands of domesticity but a stirring of rebellion of millions of women who were fed up with pretending that they were happy with their lives and that solving this problem would be the key to the future of American culture.

What Are Conference Proceedings?

The simple definition of conference proceedings goes something like this: A collection of academic papers presented at a professional association meeting or conference. However, many of the words, like meeting and conference, which make up that definition are interchangeable with other terms…and often are. If you’re not an academic or an engineer, you will benefit from the following expanded explanation.

For starters the term conference can also be exchanged with the following terms:

  • Meeting
  • Symposium
  • Exposition
  • Colloquium
  • Workshop
  • Exhibition
  • Confabulation (yes, confabulation — I didn’t imagine it)

The term proceedings can also be exchanged with the following terms:

  • Papers
  • Manuscripts
  • Abstracts (a brief paper — a paragraph up to 1 page)
  • Extended Abstracts (2-5 pages)
  • Presentations

And the term association can be exchanged with any organization, like: society, agency, research foundation, council, institute, corporation, etc.

While conferences can be focused on any academic subject, from Humanities and Social Studies to Natural and Applied sciences, they are often focused on a specific discipline. For example, one conference hosted by the International Veterinary Acupuncture Society will include 30 – 40 papers all focused tightly on, well…veterinary acupuncture. This focus provides a depth of coverage unlike any other scientific publication. In fact, one of the truly unique qualities of conference proceedings lies in the fact that they are made up of research papers from many individuals, which makes their character distinctly different from scientific books, textbooks or journals.

One conference proceedings title can include as few as 5-10 papers or as many as 2,000 papers. Some conferences are held each year, or every two years, three years, etc. Most proceedings publications are referred to as “monographs” (stand-alone), and others are part of a series. For example, the Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings Series may have a symposium titled “Three-Dimensional Nano- and Microphotonics”, which is volume #1014 in the series.

They are relatively cost-effective sources for academic research since they are less expensive than their higher priced relatives, journals — and typically have more content than journals, albeit a little less prestigious. Conference proceedings often include new research breakthroughs, innovations, methodologies and best practices, particularly in the fields of science, engineering and technology. They provide a platform for researchers to identify potential collaborators, and can influence work in related disciplines. It is at these important national and international conferences that research findings are reported and debated for the first time – long before their formal publication in journals and textbooks.

Hopefully, the next time someone mentions conference proceedings you won’t have a blank stare on your face.

Globalization and Education

In this paper I am going to look at the effect globalization has on education whether it is positive or negative. The paper will look at how globalization has given educators the ability to expand their teaching and the learning experience. One of the sources is a follow-up on a conference at Harvard held by many faculty experts in various fields. The article should provide some good insight as to whether or not globalization has proven to be beneficial toward educators and the education they are providing. Globalization is a process in which economies, cultures, and societies have combined through a global network of trade and communication. While the term is more often used in economic settings, globalization has aided in the advancement of society as a whole. Globalization is not a new idea, and when used in its economic connotation, it refers to the removal of trade barriers amongst nations to improve and increase the flow of goods across the world. But in this article, we are going to look at the implications of globalization on education and the educators themselves.

The way globalization has influenced trade barriers and communications among countries has in turn habituated the way educators educate. Corporations have targeted schools and colleges and have turned to them in order to help with expansion. Courses and programs were restructured in order to increase the marketing for programs such as MBAs and distance learning courses. A distance learning course is an online based course that has helped people who may already be working or those who need to stay at home achieve a degree. As a result the cost for students to attend universities has gone up as well, leading to a change in the way loans and grants are distributed and in what quantity. The perception people have on the current economy is playing a major impact in globalization effect on education. Regardless of the higher costs, students are still finding it necessary to stay in school and get as much accreditation as they can before entering the job market. It’s projected that in the next few years enrollment numbers will continue to rise significantly due to the belief that not having a degree in today’s economy is detrimental to success.

The restricted courses are allowing students to prepare for particular jobs as opposed to giving them a general education on a subject. This is described as being a “managerial-based” teaching strategy where students are not only taught the concepts needed for their degree, but in leadership as well. This is something to hardly be opposed too, but the increase in direct costs for students is cause for concern among some people. Some people are looking at this relationship between globalization and education and defining it as a technique the government is using to unitize education across the world. Some people feel the government is doing so because of pressure from “greater powers” to increase the educational well-being of students without receiving any opposition to the changes. The increasing understanding is that globalization is being reflected in an educational agenda that allows for various, and countless, improvements upon the education system that allows the educators themselves to expand on their teaching, and present students with real world situations that require them to “think outside the box”, or outside the realm of their particular field, if you will.

In conclusion, globalization seems to be, overall, a pretty beneficial movement in terms of education, although there are still several obstacles in its way. Harvard economist David Bloom has said that the world’s economies have thrived in globalization, as they all share a deep commitment to the education of young people. But he goes on to say that while these nations have gone on to use globalization to increase their educational prosperity, globalization has further distributed more “wealth to the wealthy” and fewer benefits to the poor. It was suggested at the same Harvard conference that education for pre-college students be more informing as well, and those students should know before going in that, for example, “the state of India’s economy, could very well affect their ability to receive and maintain a job once graduated”. The whole idea is very intriguing, and should continue to be monitored closely as globalization’s impact on education will likely be major, just as it has been for many other aspects of society.

Lesson One – Investment Definition and Explanation

Investment is one of the fundamental concepts in finance. No financial discussion, website or blog is complete without defining and explaining investment. I intend to write about investment in detail with reference to households and individuals, as a tutorial, starting from defining and explaining investment as a phenomenon and then slowly incorporating complex topics in further posts.

Definition of Investment

“Investment is the concept of putting ‘surplus’ money to things such as stocks, bonds, real estate, starting a new venture, buying a capital good etc. with a hope/forecast to have capital gains or continuous streams of positive net income from this employment of money.”

With reference to individuals, it is generally recommended to use surplus money for investments, as there is a very thin line between investing and speculating, so investment decisions should be made very wisely and with proper research and analysis. Investment always comes with a risk of losing the invested amount, and this loss would not be in the control of the investor then, it is always advisable to measure and research all risks involved.

Investment is a parallel concept to Savings, where savings is done with an intent to cope with increasing inflation, Investment on the other hand is done with and intention to earn revenue streams or have capital gains from money invested, and it also generates employment and increases the production level of a country. Individuals either save or invest their surplus money based on how much risk they are willing to take. More risk taking individuals prefer investing over savings.